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BRCA Genetic MutationsGuidelines from the United States Preventive Service Task Force recommend screening for BRCA genetic mutations in women whose family history suggests a high risk for ovarian cancer. Recent Drug ApprovalsThe FDA approved rucaparib (Rubraca), niraparib (Zejula), and olaparib (Lynparza) for some patients with BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer. Introduction Ovarian cancer is a cancer that begins in a woman's ovary, although there is information accumulating that many ovarian cancers may actually begin in the fallopian tube with very early spread to the ovary.

A woman's reproductive system includes the: OvariesFallopian tubesUterusCervixVagina The ovaries are two small, almond-shaped organs located on either side of the uterus.

Ovarian CancersOvarian cancers begin when cells in an ovary grow abnormally quickly and develop into a tumor. They are usually one of three types:Epithelial tumors are the most common type of ovarian cancer, and the main focus of this report.

These cancers originate in the layer of cells that cover the outside of the ovaries. Germ cell tumors are much less common. They begin in the ovary's egg production cells. These cancers, although rare, tend to occur in younger women and children. Stromal tumors are rare. They develop from the connective tissue cells that hold the ovary together. These cells produce boehringer animal health ingelheim female hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Click the icon to see an image of ovarian cancer. Ovarian Cancer ProgressionOvarian cancer progresses almost silently, usually with only boehringer animal health ingelheim, non-specific symptoms. Risk Factors and Prevention Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women. Risk Factors for Ovarian CancerAgeOlder women have a higher risk for ovarian cancer than younger women. EthnicityOvarian cancer is more common in white women than in African-American women.

Family HistoryWomen are at high risk for ovarian cancer and for harboring a genetic mutation such as BRCA if they have a:First-degree relative (mother, sister, or daughter) with ovarian cancer at any age. The risk increases with the number of affected first-degree relatives. First-degree relative or two second-degree relatives (aunts or grandmothers) on the same side who had breast cancer before age 50 years. Family member with both breast and ovarian cancer.

Family history of male breast cancer. Family history of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer known as Lynch syndrome. When a woman describes her family history to her doctor, she should include the history of cancer in women on both the mother's and boehringer animal health ingelheim father's side.

Genetic MutationsInherited mutations in boehringer animal health ingelheim genes called BRCA1 and BRCA2 greatly boehringer animal health ingelheim the risk for ovarian and breast cancers. Personal Medical HistoryWomen who have been diagnosed with breast cancer are at increased risk for ovarian cancer, even if they do not have BRCA mutations.

Reproductive HistoryWomen are at increased risk for ovarian cancer if they began menstruating at an early age (before age 12), have not had any children, had their first child after age 35, or experienced early menopause (before age 50). Hormone UseWomen who use hormone therapy (HT) after menopause for longer than 5 years may have an increased risk for ovarian cancer. ObesityWomen who are obese have an increased boehringer animal health ingelheim for ovarian cancer.

Click the icon to see an illustrated series detailing the birth control pill. Click the icon to see an image of tubal ligation. Preventive Strategies for Women at High RiskWomen with a strong family history of ovarian or related cancers should discuss preventive strategies with their providers. Screening for BRCA Genetic MutationsGuidelines from the U. Removal of Ovaries (Oophorectomy)Surgical removal of the ovaries called oophorectomy, significantly reduces the risk for ovarian cancer.

Symptoms Ovarian cancer used to be considered a "silent killer. See your provider if boehringer animal health ingelheim have the following symptoms on a daily basis for more than a few weeks:Bloating or swollen is pneumonia areaPelvic or lower abdominal pain or feeling of heavinessDifficulty eating or feeling full quickly Other symptoms that are sometimes associated with ovarian cancer include: Menstrual irregularitiesFatigueIndigestionConstipationUrinary urge or frequencyBack painPain during sexual intercourse Feeling a mass in the abdomenBe aware that these symptoms are very common in women who do not have cancer and are not specific for ovarian cancer.

Diagnosis Ovarian cancer is difficult to detect in its early stages. Pelvic ExamPhysical signs indicating ovarian cancer may be detected during a pelvic exam.

Transvaginal Ultrasound and Other Imaging TestsUltrasoundTransvaginal ultrasound is a noninvasive boehringer animal health ingelheim procedure that uses sound waves to bounce off tissues, organs, and masses in the pelvic area. Click boehringer animal health ingelheim icon boehringer animal health ingelheim see an image of transvaginal ultrasound.

Other Imaging TechniquesOther imaging tests are less common roche architect the diagnosis or evaluation of suspected ovarian cancer but, in patients who appear to have ovarian cancer, they may help determine if cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Furthermore, an elevated level can be caused by a number of other conditions including: Kidney, heart, or liver problemsOther cancersInfectionsEndometriosisAdenomyosisFibroidsPregnancy BiopsyA biopsy (tissue sample) is the only way to confirm a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. There are several surgical approaches:Laparotomy is an open surgery procedure that usually requires general anesthesia. The surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen either from the pubic bone to the navel or transversely in the lower abdomen (bikini incision) to explore the abdominal cavity.

Laparoscopy also requires general anesthesia but uses only small incisions. A lighted tube with a camera on the end is inserted. Robotically assisted laparoscopy may be employed as well.

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