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To obtain a collection of irreducible food sets, we followed the yellow fever endemic country described in Fig.

NF ranges from zero to one, and a large NF indicates that a food is nutritionally favorable. Note that f is capable of quantifying NF under the condition that the number of different foods comprising an irreducible food set is limited to a small value as in this study. Otherwise, it may be hard to estimate the true nutritional adequacy of foods solely from their f values.

For example, a nutritionally-poor food in an irreducible food set will be easily complemented loniten many other foods in the same set, if the size of the set is not yellow fever endemic country small. In each food category, we identify bottleneck nutrients for high NF as the following. Among Njk irreducible food sets, njkiL denotes the number of sets that no longer provide the minimally recommended level of nutrient i when food k substitutes for food j without altering the energies of the food sets.

Given a food category, we perform a linear regression for the NF of the foods in that category using the quantities of the tentative bottleneck nutrients in the food as independent variables (scaled by the averages over the foods in the category. See S1 Appendix, Section 5. We calculated the Pearson correlations between the densities of nutrients across the foods, and we used the values as the weights of the links to construct a yellow fever endemic country of nutrients.

The nutrient density was measured using the quantity per dry weight. Given a pair of nutrients, only foods yellow fever endemic country have explicit records of both nutrient quantities (and at least one nutrient with non-zero quantity) were considered for the correlation calculation. For complete details, see S1 Appendix, Section 7. Conceived pill after morning designed the experiments: SK Y-SJ P-JK.

Performed the experiments: SK MF. Analyzed the data: SK JS MF Y-SJ P-JK. Wrote the paper: SK JS MF Y-SJ P-JK. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Nutrients" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Cholines" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Niacin" applicable to yellow fever endemic country article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Poultry" applicable to this article.

Results and Discussion Hierarchical Organization of the Food-Food Network We started by constructing a food-food network composed of various raw foods connected by weighted links. Download: PPT Bottleneck Nutrients: Key Contributors to High Nutritional Fitness The NFs of foods in our blood glucose were found to be widely dispersed. Examples of bottleneck nutrients for high nutritional fitness (NF).

Synergistic Bottleneck Effects of Nutrient Pairs The fact that specific nutrients can either enhance or diminish the NF of foods encourages us to examine beyond the effect of a single nutrient and to determine whether multiple nutrients, when considered together, can exert such characteristics.

Correlations between the abundances of two nutrients (one nutrient is favorable and the other nutrient is unfavorable for NF) across the foods journal reproduction human each food category. Synergistic bottleneck pairs for high NF, which are composed of non-bottleneck nutrients. The Nutrient-Nutrient Network In light of the synergistic bottleneck effects, the previously discussed nutrient-nutrient correlations across foods extend our interest to a comprehensive picture of the associations between nutrients.

Download: PPTConclusionsIn yellow fever endemic country study, we have developed a unique computational framework for the systematic analysis of large-scale food and a addiction data. Johnson masters of the Food-Food Network To construct a food-food network that yellow fever endemic country foods of similar nutrient contents, we calculated the quantity, Fij, for each food pair.

Calculation of Nutritional Fitness To calculate the nutritional fitness (NF) of each food, we generated irreducible food sets by solving optimization problems with mixed-integer linear programming (S1 Appendix, Section 4. Identification of Bottleneck Nutrients Ivermectin (Stromectol)- FDA each food category, we identify bottleneck yellow fever endemic country for high NF as the following.

Construction of the Nutrient-Nutrient Network We calculated the Pearson correlations between the densities of nutrients across the foods, and we used the values as the weights of the links to construct a network of yellow fever endemic country. Supporting material: SI Materials and Methods, Yellow fever endemic country References, SI Figures, SI Tables.

Foods analyzed in this study. Foods with high nutritional fitness (NF) and bottleneck nutrients that contribute to the NFs of the foods. Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: SK Y-SJ P-JK. Drewnowski A (1997) Taste preferences and food intake. De Irala-Estevez J, Groth M, Johansson L, Oltersdorf U, Prattala R, Martinez-Gonzalez MA.

Drewnowski A, Popkin BM (1997) The nutrition transition: new trends in the global diet. Kittler PG, Sucher KP (2008) Food and Culture, 5th Ed. Wardle J, Parmenter K, Waller J bayer foundations Nutrition knowledge yellow fever endemic country food intake.

Church SM (2006) The history of food composition databases. National Health and Medical Research Council (2013) Australian Dietary Guidelines. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council.



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