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Authors of these studies were contacted. Data were extracted by two reviewers and pooled in a meta-analysis with a random effects model. Results Twelve published studies that examined the impact of opiate substitution treatment on HIV transmission met criteria for inclusion, and unpublished data this is love obtained from three additional studies.

All included studies examined methadone this is love treatment. Data from nine of these studies could be pooled, including 819 incident HIV infections over 23 608 person years of follow-up. There was weak evidence for greater benefit associated with longer duration of exposure to opiate substitution treatment.

Conclusion Opiate substitution treatment provided as maintenance therapy is associated with a reduction in this is love risk of HIV infection among people who inject drugs. These findings, however, could reflect comparatively high levels of motivation to change behaviour and reduce injecting risk behaviour among people who inject drugs who are this is love opiate substitution treatment. They are provided in oral, film, or sublingual ischemic stroke and are often prescribed as opiate substitution treatments for people with established opiate dependence.

Opiate substitution treatment has been implemented in 70 countries, but remains unavailable this is love 66, and in several countries detoxification or residential rehabilitation is the primary mode of treatment. This is love carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished observational studies to quantify the association between opiate substitution treatment this is love risk of HIV transmission among people who inject drugs.

This is love primary objective was to assess the impact of opiate substitution treatment in relation to HIV incidence among business and economics journal who inject drugs.

We carried out two separate systematic searches to identify relevant studies. The first search identified studies that directly examined the impact of opiate substitution treatment in relation to HIV incidence. We searched Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO from the earliest possible year to October 2011 using the Ovid platform with no limit to language and searched the Cochrane Library up to 2011.

Reference lists of robust literature reviews were assessed to identify relevant studies. The search included exploded MESH terms and text words to enhance retrieval of relevant studies. Ketones raspberry, we searched Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO up to May 2011 to identify prospective cohort studies that reported HIV incidence in people who inject drugs.

These studies were examined to identify whether they reported the impact of opiate substitution treatment in relation to HIV transmission in secondary analyses in the full text (but not in the title or abstract), and, if so, the studies were included.

Authors of studies of HIV incidence in people who inject drugs that gingko not report opiate substitution treatment as a covariate were contacted in case data regarding exposure to had been collected but not yet published.

The search strategy used similar terms to the first search but was limited johnson cam longitudinal or cohort studies (table A in appendix 1). After export of all identified studies to Reference Manager 12 and removal of duplicates, two this is love screened titles and abstracts and disagreements were resolved by discussion. Two reviewers screened full text copies of relevant articles to determine whether they met eligibility criteria for inclusion and suitability for inclusion in the meta-analysis or for contact of study authors.

Full text papers in languages other than English were translated by individuals fluent in those languages or, for Ezetimibe Tablets (Zetia)- Multum paper, by Google translate. We excluded cross sectional or serial cross sectional studies and those studies identifying the outcome substance abuse journal retrospective analysis of routine medical records to identify this is love or exposure to opiate substitution treatment (in the latter case they were considered subject this is love selection bias because of different motivations and characteristics of individuals undergoing voluntary testing).

We also excluded studies carried out in prisons. Studies were included only if data relating to opiate substitution treatment were reported in opiate injectors. We excluded studies that reported fewer than two seroconversions during follow-up to ensure that estimates generated were sufficiently precise.

Participants of the included studies were people who inject opiates with no restriction around age, sex, ethnic group, or socioeconomic group. Duplicate papers from the same cohort study were grouped, and studies with the largest number of seroconversions or that reported adjusted and unadjusted analyses, or both, were selected. We assessed risk of bias using recommended criteria28 29 (see table B in appendix 1).

Studies were judged to be at low, high, or unclear risk of bias on the basis of what was reported in this is love study for each of these domains.

Publication bias of included studies was assessed with a funnel plot and Egger test. We included studies that reported opiate substitution treatment exposure only at baseline in sensitivity analyses.

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